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Potent 4-Arylalkyl-Substituted 3-Isothiazolol GABAA Competitive/Noncompetitive Antagonists:  Synthesis and Pharmacology

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journal contribution
posted on 23.02.2006, 00:00 by Dorte Krehan, Signe í Storustovu, Tommy Liljefors, Bjarke Ebert, Birgitte Nielsen, Povl Krogsgaard-Larsen, Bente Frølund
The GABAA agonists muscimol (1), 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP, gaboxadol, 3), and the partial GABAA agonist 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol (4-PIOL, 6a) and their respective 3-isothiazolol analogues thiomuscimol (2), thio-THIP (4), and thio-4-PIOL (7a) are ligands at the GABAA orthosteric (recognition) site. The structure−activity relationships (SARs) between these structures are key elements of a 3D-pharmacophore model for GABAA agonists and competitive antagonists [Frølund, B.; Jørgensen, A. T.; Tagmose, L.; Stensbøl, T. B.; Vestergaard, H. T.; Engblom, C.; Kristiansen, U.; Sanchez, C.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P.; Liljefors, T. J. Med. Chem. 2002, 45, 2454−2468]. Prompted by this model, we now report the synthesis and SAR of a series of analogues of 7a, in which the 4-position of the 3-isothiazolol was substituted by alkyl or bulky aromatic groups such as naphthylmethyl and diphenylalkyl groups (7bh). The compounds have been pharmacologically characterized using receptor binding assays and two-electrode voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes expressing α1β3γ2S- and α4β3δ-containing receptors. The compounds show SARs comparable with those of 6bh but are generally 5−15 times more potent. The 2-naphthylmethyl, the 1-bromo-2-naphthylmethyl, and the 3,3-diphenylpropyl analogues, compounds 7e, 7f, and 7h, respectively, show affinity in the low-nanomolar range (Ki 2−10 nM). Interestingly, 7e and 7h exhibited a mixed antagonist profile consisting of a noncompetitive component in the picomolar range and a competitive component at concentrations above 1 nM. This unique profile was shown not to be due to either use dependence or kinetic effects. This antagonist profile of 7e and 7h was particularly pronounced at α4β3δ-containing GABAA receptors, which showed three- and 10-fold selectivity for 7h and 6h, respectively.