American Chemical Society
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Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules Dispersed in Silicone Rubber for in Vivo Sampling in Fish Brains

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journal contribution
posted on 2015-10-20, 00:00 authored by Jianqiao Xu, Rongben Wu, Shuyao Huang, Muzi Yang, Yan Liu, Yuan Liu, Ruifen Jiang, Fang Zhu, Gangfeng Ouyang
Direct detection of fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine in living fish brains was realized for the first time by using a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber, which was prepared by mixing the polyelectrolyte in the oligomer of silicone rubber and followed by in-mold heat-curing. The polyelectrolyte was finally encased in microcapsules dispersed in the cured silicone rubber. The fiber exhibited excellent interfiber reproducibility (5.4–7.1%, n = 6), intrafiber reproducibility (3.7–4.6%, n = 6), and matrix effect-resistant capacity. Due to the capacity of simultaneously extracting the neutral and the protonated species of the analytes at physiological pH, the fiber exhibited high extraction efficiencies to fluoxetine and norfluoxetine. Besides, the effect of the salinity on the extraction performance and the competitive sorption between the analytes were also evaluated. Based on the small-sized custom-made fiber, the concentrations of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in the brains of living fish, which were exposed to waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration, were determined and found 4.4 to 9.2 and 5.0 to 9.2 times those in the dorsal-epaxial muscle. The fiber can be used to detect various protonated bioactive compounds in living animal tissues.