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Polyamide–Polyamine Cryptand as Dicarboxylate Receptor: Dianion Binding Studies in the Solid State, in Solution, and in the Gas Phase

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journal contribution
posted on 28.08.2017, 00:00 by Sourav Chakraborty, Subrata Saha, Luís M. P. Lima, Ulrike Warzok, Sayan Sarkar, Bidyut Akhuli, Mandira Nandi, Somnath Bej, Nayarassery N. Adarsh, Christoph A. Schalley, Rita Delgado, Pradyut Ghosh
Polyamide–polyamine hybrid macrobicycle L is explored with respect to its ability to bind α,ω-dicarboxylate anions. Potentiometric studies of protonated L with the series of dianions from succinate (suc2–) through glutarate (glu2–), α-ketoglutarate (kglu2–), adipate (adi2–), pimelate (pim2–), suberate (sub2–), to azelate (aze2–) have shown adipate preference with association constant value of K = 4900 M–1 in a H2O/DMSO (50:50 v/v) binary solvent mixture. The binding constant increases from glu2– to adi2– and then continuously decreases with the length of the anion chain. Further, potentiometric studies suggest that hydrogen bonding between the guest anions and the amide/ammonium protons of the receptor also contributes to the stability of the associations along with electrostatic interactions. Negative-mode electrospray ionization of aqueous solutions of host–guest complexes shows clear evidence for the selective formation of 1:1 complexes. Single-crystal X-ray structures of complexes of the receptor with glutaric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, suberic acid, and azelaic acid assist to understand the observed binding preferences. The solid-state structures reveal a size/shape complementarity between the host and the dicarboxylate anions, which is nicely reflected in the solution state binding studies.