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Photoreactivity of Metal–Organic Frameworks in Aqueous Solutions: Metal Dependence of Reactive Oxygen Species Production

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journal contribution
posted on 04.03.2016, 00:00 authored by Kai Liu, Yanxin Gao, Jing Liu, Yifan Wen, Yingcan Zhao, Kunyang Zhang, Gang Yu
Promising applications of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) in various fields have raised concern over their environmental fate and safety upon inevitable discharge into aqueous environments. Currently, no information regarding the transformation processes of MOFs is available. Due to the presence of repetitive π-bond structure and semiconductive property, photochemical transformations are an important fate process that affects the performance of MOFs in practical applications. In the current study, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in isoreticular MIL-53s was studied. Scavengers were employed to probe the production of 1O2, O2•–, and •OH, respectively. In general, MIL-53­(Cr) and MIL-53­(Fe) are dominated by type I and II photosensitization reactions, respectively, and MIL-53­(Al) appears to be less photoreactive. The generation of ROS in MIL-53­(Fe) may be underestimated due to dismutation. Further investigation of MIL-53­(Fe) encapsulated diclofenac transformation revealed that diclofenac can be easily transformed by MIL-53­(Fe) generated ROS. However, the cytotoxicity results implied that the ROS generated from MIL-53s have little effect on the viability of the human hepatocyte (HepG2) cell line. These results suggest that the photogeneration of ROS by MOFs may be metal-node dependent, and the application of MIL-53s as drug carriers needs to be carefully considered due to their high photoreactivity.