American Chemical Society
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Photocatalytic Degradation Mechanism of the Pharmaceutical Agent Salbutamol Using the Mn-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Under Visible Light Irradiation

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-03, 18:33 authored by Yumatorn Mingmongkol, Assadang Polnok, Patcharaporn Phuinthiang, Duangdao Channei, Khakhanang Ratananikom, Auppatham Nakaruk, Wilawan Khanitchaidecha
In the present work, the photocatalytic degradation of salbutamol [2-(tert-butylamino)-1-(4-hydroxyl-3-hydroxymethylphenyl)­ethanol] under visible irradiation using Mn-doped TiO2 is investigated. The Mn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol–gel method with ratios of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%. Significant characteristics, including the rutile/anatase phases ratio, specific surface area, and band gap energy, were due to the amount of Mn doping; the narrowest band gap energy of 2.80 eV was observed in 0.2% Mn-doped TiO2 with specific surface areas of 89.36 m2/g and 10.87/89.13 of rutile/anatase phases. The investigation involved salbutamol photocatalytic degradation, a kinetic study, and the identification of intermediate compounds. The results indicated that 0.2% Mn-doped TiO2 obtained the best salbutamol removal of 95% under an irradiation time of 180 min. Salbutamol slowly degraded to the intermediate compounds in the first 60 min (k = 0.0088 1/min), and these intermediate compounds were dramatically mineralized to small hydrocarbon fragments and carbon dioxide in the later irradiation times (k = 0.0179 1/min). According to the high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) results, possible degradation pathways of salbutamol were proposed: 2-(tert-butylamino)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)­ethanone, 2-(tert-butylamino)-ethanol, and 2-(tert-butylamino)-1-(4-hydroxyl-3-hydroxymethylphenyl)­ethanone were initially formed and then transformed to 2-(methylamino)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)­ethanone, 2-(tert-butylamino)-acetic acid, hydroquinone, and 1-(4-hydroxylphenyl)­ethanol, respectively. The mineralization of all intermediate compounds was verified by 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction, and the effluent contained a relatively low COD concentration of 7.8 mg/L.