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Phase Identification and Strong Second Harmonic Generation in Pure ε‑InSe and Its Alloys

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journal contribution
posted on 06.03.2019, 00:00 by Qiaoyan Hao, Huan Yi, Huimin Su, Bin Wei, Zhuo Wang, Zhezhu Lao, Yang Chai, Zhongchang Wang, Chuanhong Jin, Junfeng Dai, Wenjing Zhang
Two-dimensional material indium selenide (InSe) has offered a new platform for fundamental research in virtue of its emerging fascinating properties. Unlike 2H-phase transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), ε phase InSe with a hexagonal unit cell possesses broken inversion symmetry in all the layer numbers, and predicted to have a strong second harmonic generation (SHG) effect. In this work, we find that the as-prepared pure InSe, alloyed InSe1–xTex and InSe1–xSx (x = 0.1 and 0.2) are ε phase structures and exhibit excellent SHG performance from few-layer to bulk-like dimension. This high SHG efficiency is attributed to the noncentrosymmetric crystal structure of the ε-InSe system, which has been clearly verified by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. The experimental results show that the SHG intensities from multilayer pure ε-InSe and alloyed InSe0.9Te0.1 and InSe1–xSx (x = 0.1 and 0.2) are around 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than that of the monolayer TMD systems and even superior to that of GaSe with the same thickness. The estimated nonlinear susceptibility χ(2) of ε-InSe is larger than that of ε-GaSe and monolayer TMDs. Our study provides first-hand information about the phase identification of ε-InSe and indicates an excellent candidate for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications as well as the possibility of engineering SHG response by alloying.