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Performance Leap of Lithium Metal Batteries in LiPF6 Carbonate Electrolyte by a Phosphorus Pentoxide Acid Scavenger

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journal contribution
posted on 05.08.2022, 22:20 authored by Jian Zhang, Jiayan Shi, Leo W. Gordon, Nastaran Shojarazavi, Xiaoyu Wen, Yifan Zhao, Jianjun Chen, Chi-Cheung Su, Robert J. Messinger, Juchen Guo
Phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) is investigated as an acid scavenger to remove the acidic impurities in a commercial lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) carbonate electrolyte to improve the electrochemical properties of Li metal batteries. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements reveal the detailed reaction mechanisms of P2O5 with the LiPF6 electrolyte and its impurities, which removes hydrogen fluoride (HF) and difluorophosphoric acid (HPO2F2) and produces phosphorus oxyfluoride (POF3), OF2P–O–PF5 anions, and ethyl difluorophosphate (C2H5OPOF2) as new electrolyte species. The P2O5-modified LiPF6 electrolyte is chemically compatible with a Li metal anode and LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC622) cathode, generating a POxFy-rich solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that leads to highly reversible Li electrodeposition, while eliminating transition metal dissolution and cathode particle cracking. The excellent electrochemical properties of the P2O5-modified LiPF6 electrolytes are demonstrated on Li||NMC622 pouch cells with 0.4 Ah capacity, 50 μm Li anode, 3 mAh cm–2 NMC622 cathode, and 3 g Ah−1 electrolyte/capacity ratio. The pouch cells can be galvanostatically cycled at C/3 for 230 cycles with 87.7% retention.