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Pd@Pt Core–Shell Concave Decahedra: A Class of Catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction with Enhanced Activity and Durability

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journal contribution
posted on 02.12.2015, 00:00 by Xue Wang, Madeline Vara, Ming Luo, Hongwen Huang, Aleksey Ruditskiy, Jinho Park, Shixiong Bao, Jingyue Liu, Jane Howe, Miaofang Chi, Zhaoxiong Xie, Younan Xia
We report a facile synthesis of multiply twinned Pd@Pt core–shell concave decahedra by controlling the deposition of Pt on preformed Pd decahedral seeds. The Pt atoms are initially deposited on the vertices of a decahedral seed, followed by surface diffusion to other regions along the edges/ridges and then across the faces. Different from the coating of a Pd icosahedral seed, the Pt atoms prefer to stay at the vertices and edges/ridges of a decahedral seed even when the deposition is conducted at 200 °C, naturally generating a core–shell structure covered by concave facets. The nonuniformity in the Pt coating can be attributed to the presence of twin boundaries at the vertices, as well as the {100} facets and twin defects along the edges/ridges of a decahedron, effectively trapping the Pt adatoms at these high-energy sites. As compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst, the Pd@Pt concave decahedra show substantial enhancement in both catalytic activity and durability toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For the concave decahedra with 29.6% Pt by weight, their specific (1.66 mA/cm2Pt) and mass (1.60 A/mgPt) ORR activities are enhanced by 4.4 and 6.6 times relative to those of the Pt/C catalyst (0.36 mA/cm2Pt and 0.32 A/mgPt, respectively). After 10 000 cycles of accelerated durability test, the concave decahedra still exhibit a mass activity of 0.69 A/mgPt, more than twice that of the pristine Pt/C catalyst.