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Parallel p–n Junctions across Nanowires by One-Step Ex Situ Doping

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journal contribution
posted on 26.08.2014, 00:00 by Ori Hazut, Bo-Chao Huang, Adi Pantzer, Iddo Amit, Yossi Rosenwaks, Amit Kohn, Chia-Seng Chang, Ya-Ping Chiu, Roie Yerushalmi
The bottom-up synthesis of nanoscale building blocks is a versatile approach for the formation of a vast array of materials with controlled structures and compositions. This approach is one of the main driving forces for the immense progress in materials science and nanotechnology witnessed over the past few decades. Despite the overwhelming advances in the bottom-up synthesis of nanoscale building blocks and the fine control of accessible compositions and structures, certain aspects are still lacking. In particular, the transformation of symmetric nanostructures to asymmetric nanostructures by highly controlled processes while preserving the modified structural orientation still poses a significant challenge. We present a one-step ex situ doping process for the transformation of undoped silicon nanowires (i-Si NWs) to p-type/n-type (p–n) parallel p–n junction configuration across NWs. The vertical p–n junctions were measured by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in concert with scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), termed STM/S, to obtain the spatial electronic properties of the junction formed across the NWs. Additionally, the parallel p–n junction configuration was characterized by off-axis electron holography in a transmission electron microscope to provide an independent verification of junction formation. The doping process was simulated to elucidate the doping mechanisms involved in the one-step p–i–n junction formation.