American Chemical Society
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PEGylated Graphene Oxide as a Nanodrug Delivery Vehicle for Podophyllotoxin (GO/PEG/PTOX) and In Vitro α‑Amylase/α-Glucosidase Inhibition Activities

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-26, 12:33 authored by Fawad Islam, Farman Ali Khan, Nasir Mehmood Khan, Shujaat Ahmad, Ahad Amer Alsaiari, Mazen Almehmadi, Nadeem Ahmad, Zaheer Ul-Haq, Abdul Khaliq Jan, Mamdouh Allahyani, Abdulaziz Alsharif, Ebenezer Ola Falade
This study aims to develop a nanodrug delivery system containing podophyllotoxin (PTOX), a known anticancer drug, loaded on graphene oxide (GO). The system’s ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was also investigated. PTOX was isolated from Podophyllum hexandrum roots with a yield of 2.3%. GO, prepared by Hummer’s method, was converted into GO-COOH and surface-mobilized using polyethylene glycol (PEG) (1:1) in an aqueous medium to obtain GO-PEG. PTOX was loaded on GO-PEG in a facile manner with a 25% loading ratio. All the samples were characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, UV/visible spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In FT-IR spectral data, GO-PEG-PTOX exhibited a reduction in acidic functionalities and there was an appearance of the ester linkage of PTOX with GO. The UV/visible measurements suggested an increase of absorbance in 290–350 nm regions for GO-PEG, suggesting the successful drug loading on its surface (25%). GO-PEG-PTOX exhibited a rough, aggregated, and scattered type of pattern in SEM with distinct edges and binding of PTOX on its surface. GO-PEG-PTOX remained potent in inhibiting both α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 7 and 5 mg/mL, closer to the IC50 of pure PTOX (5 and 4.5 mg/mL), respectively. Owing to the 25% loading ratio and 50% release within 48 h, our results are much more promising. Additionally, the molecular docking studies confirmed four types of interactions between the active centers of enzymes and PTOX, thus supporting the experimental results. In conclusion, the PTOX-loaded GO nanocomposites are promising α-amylase- and α-glucosidase-inhibitory agents when applied in vitro and have been reported for the first time.