PDMS–Fluorous Polyoxetane–PDMS Triblock Hybrid Elastomers: Tough and Transparent with Novel Bulk Morphologies
journal contributionposted on 20.02.2016, 09:35 by Souvik Chakrabarty, Mark Nisenholt, Kenneth J. Wynne
PDMS-3F-1.1-PDMS and PDMS-3F-4.5-PDMS triblock hybrid elastomers are investigated, wherein (1) 3F-1.1 and 3F-4.5 are poly(3-methyl-3-trifluoroethoxymethyl)-1,3-propylene oxide with Mn = 1.1 or 4.5 kDa, (2) segments are linked by urethane/urea forming reactions, and (3) the intermediate PDMS-3F-PDMS aminopropyl end segments are end-capped with isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane. After condensation cure, PDMS-3F-PDMS triblock hybrids (A-1.1 and A-4.5) form robust elastomers. In a second set, bis(triethoxysilylethane), BTESE, was incorporated to probe effects of increased siliceous domain content (B-1.1, B-4.5). All compositions are optically transparent due to nearly identical refractive indexes for 3F and PDMS segments. TM-AFM images for A-4.5, A-1.1, and B-4.5 fracture surfaces reveal microscale bulk phase separation. The A-4.5 triblock hybrid shows a particularly interesting morphology comprised of 2–3 μm ovaloids (low modulus) surrounded by a higher modulus matrix. A model is proposed for this microscale morphology based on the relative rates of physical network formation (PN, H-bonding) and chemical network formation (CN, SiO1.5) during coating deposition Despite low hard segment weight percents (2.6–3.5) the hybrid triblocks have moderate toughness with strain at break ranging from 260 to 492%. Triblock hybrid elastomer B-1.1 has the highest −SiO1.5 wt % (mostly from BTESE) and lowest 3F wt % (3F-1.1). No sign of microscale phase separation is observed by TM-AFM imaging, and a separate Tg for the 3F segment is not detected by DMA; these findings are ascribed to network constrained phase separation of that results in 3F being incorporated in an “interphase”. The absence of a separate Tg for 3F leads to a gradual decrease in storage modulus (8 to 1.4 MPa) from −90 to 150 °C. In contrast to the complex bulk morphology, TM-AFM imaging shows the hybrid surfaces are devoid of microstructural features attributable to phase separation. Based on contact angle measurements and XPS analysis, the outermost surface for all PDMS-3F-PDMS hybrid triblocks elastomers is dominated by PDMS.