Oxidation of Microcystin-LR via Activation of Peroxymonosulfate Using Ascorbic Acid: Kinetic Modeling and Toxicity Assessment
journal contributionposted on 07.03.2018, 00:00 by Shiqing Zhou, Yanghai Yu, Weiqiu Zhang, Xiaoyang Meng, Jinming Luo, Lin Deng, Zhou Shi, John Crittenden
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been widely used for the destruction of organic contaminants in the aqueous phase. In this study, we introduce an AOP on activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) by using ascorbic acid (H2A) to generate sulfate radicals (SO4•–). Sulfate radicals, hydroxyl radicals (HO•), and ascorbyl radicals (A•–) were found using electron spin resonance (ESR). But we found A•– is negligible in the degradation of microcystin-LR (MCLR) due to its low reactivity. We developed a first-principles kinetic model to simulate the MCLR degradation and predict the radical concentrations. The MCLR degradation rate decreased with increasing pH. The scavenging effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on SO4•– was relatively small compared to that for HO•. Considering both energy consumption and MCLR removal, the optimal H2A and PMS doses for H2A/PMS process were determined at 1.0 × 10–6 M and 1.6 × 10–5 M, respectively. In addition, we determined the toxicity using the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) test and the results showed that MCLR was readily detoxified and its oxidation byproducts were not hepatotoxic. Overall, our work provides a new type of AOP and a promising, efficient, and environmental-friendly method for removing microcystins in algae-laden water.