Origin of Regio- and Stereospecific Catalysis by 8‑Lipoxygenase
journal contributionposted on 11.12.2019, 13:38 authored by Vipin Kumar Mishra, Sabyashachi Mishra
Lipoxygenases (lox’s) are a group of non-heme iron containing enzymes that catalyze oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with precise regio- and stereoselectivities. The origin of regio- and stereospecific catalysis by 8-lox is explored in its wild-type (wt) form and in three mutants (Arg185Ala, Ala592Met, and Ala623His). The catalytic action of this enzyme progresses in two steps, namely, hydrogen abstraction from one double allylic carbon atom of substrate followed by oxygen insertion at the resulting prochiral carbon radical of the substrate. It is shown that the positional specificity of the hydrogen abstraction is a result of conformational dynamics of the bound substrate. While the C10 atom of the substrate is found to be the most probable site of hydrogen abstraction in the wt-lox, hydrogen abstraction from C13 is more favorable in the mutants. The present study discovers the presence of an interconnected network of a three-channel migration pathway operating in the protein matrix for efficient oxygen transport. Each migration channel is bestowed with a pocket at the peripheral region of protein as an oxygen access site, which transfers the oxygen to the active site through a well-connected migration path on a time scale of a few hundred picoseconds. By a careful geometric analysis of the oxygen pockets near the substrate binding cleft, the present study identifies the launching sites for oxygenation at the prochiral carbon centers C8, C11, C12, and C15 and the stereochemistry (R/S) of the corresponding products. It is found that the dominating 8R product in the wt-lox is due to the presence of the aromatic ring pair of Tyr181 and Phe173 acting as a gatekeeper for efficient delivery of oxygen at the pro-R face of C8. The change in the stereochemistry of the products in mutants is explained in terms of dynamic interactions between substrate and the surrounding residues.