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Oriented Protein Immobilization using Covalent and Noncovalent Chemistry on a Thiol-Reactive Self-Reporting Surface

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journal contribution
posted on 19.02.2016, 21:15 by Dorothee Wasserberg, Carlo Nicosia, Eldrich E. Tromp, Vinod Subramaniam, Jurriaan Huskens, Pascal Jonkheijm
We report the fabrication of a patterned protein array using three orthogonal methods of immobilization that are detected exploiting a fluorogenic surface. Upon reaction of thiols, the fluorogenic tether reports the bond formation by an instantaneous rise in (blue) fluorescence intensity providing a means to visualize the immobilization even of nonfluorescent biomolecules. First, the covalent, oriented immobilization of a visible fluorescent protein (TFP) modified to display a single cysteine residue was detected. Colocalization of the fluorescence of the immobilized TFP and the fluorogenic group provided a direct tool to distinguish covalent bond formation from physisorption of proteins. Subsequent orthogonal immobilization of thiol-functionalized biomolecules could be conveniently detected by fluorescence microscopy using the fluorogenic surface. A thiol-modified nitrilotriacetate ligand was immobilized for binding of hexahistidine-tagged red-fluorescing TagRFP, while an appropriately modified biotin was immobilized for binding of Cy5-labeled streptavidin.