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Oral Bioavailability and Pharmacodynamic Activity of Hesperetin Nanocrystals Generated Using a Novel Bottom-up Technology

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journal contribution
posted on 2015-04-06, 00:00 authored by Ganesh Shete, Yogesh B. Pawar, Kaushik Thanki, Sanyog Jain, Arvind Kumar Bansal
In the present study, nanocrystalline solid dispersion (NSD) was developed to enhance the release rate and oral bioavailability of hesperetin (HRN). NSD of HRN was prepared using a novel bottom-up technology platform. It is a spray drying based technology to generate solid particles, containing drug nanocrystals dispersed in small molecule excipients. HRN and mannitol were used in a 5:5 ratio, and an average crystallite size of HRN in NSD with mannitol was found to be 137.3 ± 90.0 nm. An in vitro release study revealed a statistically significant release rate enhancement for HRN nanocrystals (46.3 μg/mL/min) as compared to that of the control (29.5 μg/mL/min). Further, a comparative oral bioavailability study of NSD and control in Sprague–Dawley rats established significant improvement in Cmax and oral bioavailability (AUC0–∞) by 1.79- and 2.25-fold, respectively, for HRN nanocrystals. The findings of oral bioavailability were corroborated by intestinal uptake and Caco-2 cell uptake studies, wherein HRN, when administered in nanocrystalline form, showed higher penetration in intestinal mucosa and higher uptake in Caco-2 cells. Finally, the therapeutic efficacy of HRN nanocrystals was tested by a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation assay and carrageenan induced anti-inflammatory model. HRN nanocrystals markedly inhibited ROS generation in MCF-7 cells, and carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. The process of NSD formation was found to be based on classical nucleation theory wherein mannitol contributed to NSD formation by acting as a plasticizer and crystallization inducer, and by providing sites for heterogeneous nucleation/crystallization.