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Optoelectronic Dichotomy of Mixed Halide CH3NH3Pb(Br1–xClx)3 Single Crystals: Surface versus Bulk Photoluminescence

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journal contribution
posted on 29.08.2018, 00:00 by Zhongguo Li, Charles Kolodziej, Taiyang Zhang, Christopher McCleese, Anton Kovalsky, Yixin Zhao, Walter R. L. Lambrecht, Clemens Burda
In this work, the spatially dependent recombination kinetics of mixed-halide hybrid perovskite CH3NH3Pb­(Br1–xClx)3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.19) single crystals are investigated using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy with one- and two-photon femtosecond laser excitation. The introduction of chloride by substituting a fraction of the bromide leads to a decreased lattice constant compared to pure bromide perovskite (x = 0) and a higher concentration of surface defects. The measured kinetics under one-photon excitation (1PE) shows that increasing the chloride addition quenches the photoluminescence (PL) lifetimes, due to substitution-induced surface defects. In stark contrast, upon 2PE, the PL lifetimes measured deeper in the bulk become longer with increasing chloride addition, until the halide substitution reaches the critical concentration of ∼19%. At x = 19% Cl concentration, a significant reversal of this behavior is observed indicating a change in crystal structure beyond the continuous trends observed at lower percentages of halide substitution (x ≤ 11%). The observed opposing trends, based on 1PE versus 2PE, highlight a dichotomy between extrinsic (surface) and intrinsic (bulk) effects of chloride substitution on the carrier dynamics in lead bromide perovskites. We discuss the physical relation between halide exchange and bulk carrier lifetimes in CH3NH3PbBr3 in terms of the Rashba effect. We propose that the latter is suppressed at the surface due to disorder in the alignment of the MA and that it increases in the bulk with Cl concentration because of the reduction in lattice parameters, which compresses the space available for the MA orientational degrees of freedom.