American Chemical Society
es9b03062_si_001.pdf (2.4 MB)

Optimizing Potable Water Reuse Systems: Chloramines or Hydrogen Peroxide for UV-Based Advanced Oxidation Process?

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journal contribution
posted on 2019-11-01, 19:15 authored by Kiranmayi P. Mangalgiri, Samuel Patton, Liang Wu, Shanhui Xu, Kenneth P. Ishida, Haizhou Liu
The tapping of municipal wastewater for potable reuse significantly enhances drinking water supply in drought-stricken regions worldwide. Membrane-based potable reuse treatment trains commonly employ ultraviolet-based advanced oxidation processes (UV-AOPs) to degrade trace organic contaminants in water to produce high-quality recycled water. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is used as the default photo-oxidant. Meanwhile, chloramines, which are added to prevent biofouling, pass through the membranes and impact the treatment efficiency of UV-AOP. Water reuse facilities therefore face the dilemma of optimizing H2O2 (an added photo-oxidant) and chloramines (a carry-over photo-oxidant) doses. Utilizing a uniquely designed pilot-scale reactor and real-time recycled water, we evaluated treatment efficiencies of UV-AOP on six important indicator contaminants, with monochloramine (NH2Cl) and H2O2 as photo-oxidants. Hydroxyl radical (HO) and reactive chlorine species, such as the chlorine atom (Cl) and chlorine dimer (Cl2•–), were the major reactive species. Overall, radicals generated from photolysis of NH2Cl alone achieved removal of indicator compounds, which can be further improved by optimizing UV fluence, i.e., the UV dose. Furthermore, the addition of H2O2 enhanced HO formation and improved contaminant removal. However, the addition of H2O2, when the background NH2Cl level was above 2 mg L–1 (as Cl2), provided limited improvement in treatment efficiency. These trade-offs between chloramine and H2O2 as oxidants, and the recommended optimization of the associated effective UV fluence, are critical for energy-efficient and cost-effective potable reuse to address the challenges of global water scarcity.