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Optical Generation and Detection of Local Nonequilibrium Phonons in Suspended Graphene

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journal contribution
posted on 20.02.2017, 00:00 by Sean Sullivan, Ajit Vallabhaneni, Iskandar Kholmanov, Xiulin Ruan, Jayathi Murthy, Li Shi
The measured frequencies and intensities of different first- and second-order Raman peaks of suspended graphene are used to show that optical phonons and different acoustic phonon polarizations are driven out of local equilibrium inside a submicron laser spot. The experimental results are correlated with a first-principles-based multiple temperature model to suggest a considerably lower equivalent local temperature of the flexural phonons than those of other phonon polarizations. The finding reveals weak coupling between the flexural modes with hot electrons and optical phonons. Since the ultrahigh intrinsic thermal conductivity of graphene has been largely attributed to contributions from the flexural phonons, the observed local nonequilibrium phenomena have important implications for understanding energy dissipation processes in graphene-based electronic and optoelectronic devices, as well as in Raman measurements of thermal transport in graphene and other two-dimensional materials.