Open-Shell Fluorination of Alkyl Bromides: Unexpected Selectivity in a Silyl Radical-Mediated Chain Process
journal contributionposted on 11.12.2019, 21:46 by Gabrielle H. Lovett, Shuming Chen, Xiao-Song Xue, K. N. Houk, David W. C. MacMillan
We disclose a novel radical strategy for the fluorination of alkyl bromides via the merger of silyl radical-mediated halogen-atom abstraction and benzophenone photosensitization. Selectivity for halogen-atom abstraction from alkyl bromides is observed in the presence of an electrophilic fluorinating reagent containing a weak N–F bond despite the predicted favorability for Si–F bond formation. To probe this surprising selectivity, preliminary mechanistic and computational studies were conducted, revealing that a radical chain mechanism is operative in which kinetic selectivity for Si–Br abstraction dominates due to a combination of polar effects and halogen-atom polarizability in the transition state. This transition-metal-free fluorination protocol tolerates a broad range of functional groups, including alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes, which demonstrates the complementary nature of this strategy to existing fluorination technologies. This system has been extended to the generation of gem-difluorinated motifs which are commonly found in medicinal agents and agrochemicals.