American Chemical Society
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Novel Seven Coordination Geometry of Sn(IV):  Crystal Structures of Phthalocyaninato Bis(undecylcarboxylato)Sn(IV), Its Si(IV) Analogue, and Phthalocyaninato Bis(chloro)silicon(IV). The Electrochemistry of the Si(IV) Analogue and Related Compounds

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journal contribution
posted on 2001-09-11, 00:00 authored by Jack Silver, Christopher S. Frampton, George R. Fern, Dominic A. Davies, John R. Miller, Jose L. Sosa-Sanchez
Three newly elucidated crystal structures of group IV phthalocyaninato complexes are reported, along with data for two further SiPc carboxylate complexes. In one of these crystal structures, bis(undecylcarboxylate)Sn(IV) phthalocyanine, the tin ion is seven coordinate, which is a unique finding for this atom in phthalocyanine ring coordination. Comparison of these structures with other group IV phthalocyaninato and related structures reveals differences, illustrating features significant in the chemistries of Si(IV) and Sn(IV) ions. These differences are thought to originate from their differing sizes and polarizabilities. The structures show that the Sn(IV) ion can only occupy an in-plane location in the phthalocyaninato ring where it elongates toward the two axial ligands. When the axial ligands do not facilitate this elongation cis coordination is preferred and the Sn(IV) ion sits above the phthalocyaninato ring plane. In contrast, the Si(IV) structures, with smaller, harder (i.e., less polarizable) Si(IV) ions, are six coordinate with the Si(IV) ion in the phthalocyaninato ring plane in a distorted octahedral symmetry. The electronic spectra and cyclic voltammetry of some of the Si compounds indicate that on the electrode the oxidized/reduced species behave as though they are in a solid film, rather than a soluble freely diffusing species.