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Nontargeted Metabolite Profiling of the Most Prominent Indian Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars Using Different Extraction Methods
journal contributionposted on 2023-10-19, 03:03 authored by Jinal Tandel, Yatin Tandel, Chintan Kapadia, Susheel Singh, Kelvin Gandhi, Rahul Datta, Sachidanand Singh, Abraham Yirgu
Aroma has a crucial role in assessing the quality of fresh fruit and its processed versions, which serve as reliable indications for advancing local cultivars in the mango industry. The aroma of mango is attributed to a complex of hundreds of volatile, polar, and nonpolar metabolites belonging to different chemical classes like monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, nonterpene hydrocarbons (alkanes), alcohols, esters, fatty acids, aldehydes, lactones, amides, amines, ethers, and many more. This study looked at the volatile, nonpolar, and polar metabolites from 16 mango cultivars to determine their relative quantities and intervarietal changes using hexane, ethanol, and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. In total, 58 volatile compounds through SPME, 50 nonpolar metabolites from hexane extract, and 52 polar metabolites from ethanol extract were detected from all of the cultivars, belonging to various chemical classes. Through the SPME method, all 16 mango cultivars except Dashehari and Neelum exhibited abundant monoterpenes with maximum concentration in Kesar (91.00%) and minimum in Amrapali (60.66%). However, the abundance of fatty acids and sesquiterpenes was detected in Dashehari (37.91%) and Neelum (74.80%), respectively. In the hexane extract, 23 nonterpene hydrocarbons exhibited abundance in all 16 mango cultivars except Baneshan, with a higher concentration in Dashehari (95.45%) and lower in Ratna (77.63%). The ethanol extraction of 16 mango cultivars showed a higher concentration of esters, aldehydes, alcohols, and amides in Jamadar (52.16%), Dadamio (74.30%), Langra (64.38%), and Kesar (37.10%), respectively. There have been a lot of metabolite variations observed and analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) based on the similarity of various chemical compounds. Cluster analysis revealed the true similarity and pedigree of different mango cultivars, viz., Neeleswari, Dashehari, Neelum, Alphonso, Baneshan, Sonpari, and Neeleshan. They occupied the same cluster during analysis.
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