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New Insights in the Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Three Primary Metabolites of Organophosphate Flame Retardants

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journal contribution
posted on 2020-03-13, 17:36 authored by Quan Zhang, Chang Yu, Lili Fu, Sijia Gu, Cui Wang
Despite the ubiquity of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) metabolites in the biota, the endocrine disrupting potency has not been well examined. Herein, we chose three primary metabolites of OPFRs (BCIPP, BDCIPP, and DPHP) to investigate their potential endocrine disrupting effects by in vitro, in vivo, and in silico assays. Three metabolites were agonistic to rat estrogenic receptor alpha (ERα) and antagonists to human mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). BCIPP exerted endocrine disrupting effect contrasting to the negative response of its parental compound. It also poses the strongest binding capacity to ERα among the tested compounds. Both BCIPP and BDCIPP upregulated the genes encoded for estrogenic synthesis enzymes in H295R cells, including 17βHSD and CYP19. All three compounds stimulated the transcription of CYP11B1, whereas BCIPP and DPHP also triggered CYP11B2, encoding for corticoid production. BDCIPP inhibits genes for progesterone synthesis including CYP11A1, STAR, and 3-βHSD. The induction of mortality and low hatchability of zebrafish embryo were ranked as BCIPP ≥ BDCIPP > DPHP. All compounds lead to malformation of zebrafish larvae. Both of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and hypothalamic-pituitary–gonadal axes were disrupted, with the highest impact by BCIPP. Altogether, the data clarified OPFRs metabolites may produce comparable or even higher endocrine disrupting effects than OPFRs.