American Chemical Society
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Nano-Decoration of the Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan Envelope (HVJ-E) Using a Layer-by-Layer Assembly Technique

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journal contribution
posted on 2013-06-18, 00:00 authored by Takaharu Okada, Koichiro Uto, Masao Sasai, Chun Man Lee, Mitsuhiro Ebara, Takao Aoyagi
In this study, we created a nanoscale layer of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the inactivated Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) via a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique for CD-44 targeted delivery. HVJ-E was selected as the template virus because it has shown a tumor-suppressing ability by eliciting inflammatory cytokine production in dendritic cells. Although it has been required to increase the tumor-targeting ability and reduce nonspecific binding because HVJ-E fuses with virtually all cells and induces hemagglutination in the bloodstream, complete modifications of single-envelope-type viruses with HA have been difficult. Therefore, we studied the surface ζ potential of HVJ-E at different pH values and carefully examined the deposition conditions for the first layer using three cationic polymers: poly-l-lysine (PLL), chitosan (CH), and glycol chitosan (GC). GC-coated HVJ-E particles showed the highest disperse ability under physiological pH and salt conditions without aggregation. An HA layer was then prepared via alternating deposition of HA and GC. The successive decoration of multilayers on HVJ-E has been confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), ζ potentials, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). An enzymatic degradation assay revealed that only the outermost HA layer was selectively degraded by hyaluronidase. However, entire layers were destabilized at lower pH. Therefore, the HA/GC-coated HVJ-E describe here can be thought of as a potential bomb for cancer immunotherapy because of the ability of targeting CD44 as well as the explosion of nanodecorated HA/GC layers at endosomal pH while preventing nonspecific binding at physiological pH and salt conditions such as in the bloodstream or normal tissues.