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NMR Structure of Varkud Satellite Ribozyme Stem−Loop V in the Presence of Magnesium Ions and Localization of Metal-Binding Sites,

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journal contribution
posted on 05.09.2006, 00:00 by Dean O. Campbell, Patricia Bouchard, Geneviève Desjardins, Pascale Legault
In the Neurospora VS ribozyme, magnesium ions facilitate formation of a loop−loop interaction between stem−loops I and V, which is important for recognition and activation of the stem−loop I substrate. Here, we present the high-resolution NMR structure of stem−loop V (SL5) in the presence of Mg2+ (SL5Mg) and demonstrate that Mg2+ induces a conformational change in which the SL5 loop adopts a compact structure with most characteristics of canonical U-turn structures. Divalent cation-binding sites were probed with Mn2+-induced paramagnetic line broadening and intermolecular NOEs to Co(NH3)63+. Structural modeling of Mn(H2O)62+ in SL5Mg revealed four divalent cation-binding sites in the loop. Sites 1, 3, and 4 are located in the major groove near multiple phosphate groups, whereas site 2 is adjacent to N7 of G697 and N7 of A698 in the minor groove. Cation-binding sites equivalent to sites 1−3 in SL5 are present in other U-turn motifs, and these metal-binding sites may represent a common feature of the U-turn fold. Although magnesium ions affect the loop conformation, they do not significantly change the conformation of residues 697−699 involved in the proposed Watson−Crick base pairs with stem−loop I. In both the presence and the absence of Mg2+, G697, A698, and C699 adopt an A-form structure that exposes their Watson−Crick faces, and this is compatible with their proposed interaction with stem−loop I. In SL5Mg, however, U700 becomes exposed on the minor groove face of the loop in the proximity of the bases of G697, A698, and C699, suggesting that the Mg2+-bound conformation of stem−loop V allows additional contacts with stem−loop I. These studies improve our understanding of the role of Mg2+ in U-turn structures and in substrate recognition by the VS ribozyme.