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Mussel-Inspired Nanostructures Potentiate the Immunomodulatory Properties and Angiogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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journal contribution
posted on 22.04.2019, 00:00 by Tao Li, Hongshi Ma, Hongzhi Ma, Zhenjiang Ma, Lei Qiang, Zezheng Yang, Xiaoxiao Yang, Xiaojun Zhou, Kerong Dai, Jinwu Wang
The therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)–material constructs mainly come from the secretion of trophic factors from MSCs, especially the immunomodulatory and angiogenic cytokines. Recent findings indicate the significance of topographical cues from these materials in modulating paracrine functions of MSCs. Here, we developed functionalized three-dimensional-printed bioceramic (BC) scaffolds with a mussel-inspired surface coating in order to regulate the paracrine function of adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSCs). We found that Ad-MSCs cultured on polydopamine-modified BC scaffolds (DOPA-BC) significantly produced more immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic factors when compared with those cultured on BC scaffolds or microplates. Functional assays, such as endothelial progenitor cells migration, tube formation, and macrophage polarization, were performed to confirm the enhanced paracrine functions of the secreted trophic factors from Ad-MSCs cultured on DOPA-BC scaffolds. Further investigation identified that both focal adhesion kinase- and extracellular signal-related kinase signaling were the required mechano-transduction pathways through which the mussel-inspired surface stimulated the paracrine effect of Ad-MSCs. In a diabetic skin-defect-healing model in rats, conditioned medium received from the Ad-MSCs cultured on DOPA-BC sped wound closure, enhanced vascularization, and promoted macrophage switching from a proinflammatory M1 to a pro-healing and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype in the wound bed. These results demonstrate that a bio-inspired coating with polydopamine represents an effective method to enhance the paracrine function of MSCs. Our findings illustrate a novel strategy to accelerate tissue regeneration by guiding the paracrine-signaling network.