Multivariate Stratified Metal–Organic Frameworks: Diversification Using Domain Building Blocks
journal contributionposted on 2019-01-12, 00:00 authored by Tian-Yi Luo, Chong Liu, Xing Yee Gan, Patrick F. Muldoon, Nathan A. Diemler, Jill E. Millstone, Nathaniel L. Rosi
We introduce the concept of domain building blocks (DBBs) as an effective approach to increasing the diversity and complexity of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). DBBs are defined as distinct structural or compositional regions within a MOF material. Using the DBB approach, we illustrate how an immense number of multivariate MOF materials can be prepared from a small collection of molecular building blocks comprising the distinct domains. The multivariate nature of the MOFs is determined by the sequence of DBBs within the MOF. We then apply this approach to the construction of a rich library of UiO-67 stratified MOF (sMOF) particles consisting of multiple concentric DBBs. We discuss and highlight the negative consequences of linker exchange reactions on the compositional integrity of DBBs in the UiO-67 sMOFs and propose and demonstrate mitigation strategies. We also demonstrate that individual strata can be specifically postsynthetically addressed and manipulated. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of these synthetic strategies through the preparation of sMOF–nanoparticle composite materials.