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Multisource Vacuum Deposition of Methylammonium-Free Perovskite Solar Cells

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journal contribution
posted on 09.07.2020, 14:03 by Yu-Hsien Chiang, Miguel Anaya, Samuel D. Stranks
Halide perovskites of the form ABX3 have shown outstanding properties for solar cells. The highest reported compositions consist of mixtures of A-site cations methylammonium (MA), formamidinium (FA) and cesium, and X-site iodide and bromide ions, and are produced by solution processing. However, it is unclear whether solution processing will yield sufficient spatial performance uniformity for large-scale photovoltaic modules or compatibility with deposition of multilayered tandem solar cell stacks. In addition, the volatile MA cation presents long-term stability issues. Here, we report the multisource vacuum deposition of FA0.7Cs0.3Pb­(I0.9Br0.1)3 perovskite thin films with high-quality morphological, structural, and optoelectronic properties. We find that the controlled addition of excess PbI2 during the deposition is critical for achieving high performance and stability of the absorber material, and we fabricate p-i-n solar cells with stabilized power output of 18.2%. We also reveal the sensitivity of the deposition process to a range of parameters, including substrate, annealing temperature, evaporation rates, and source purity, providing a guide for further evaporation efforts. Our results demonstrate the enormous promise for MA-free perovskite solar cells employing industry-scalable multisource evaporation processes.