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Multishelled Si@Cu Microparticles Supported on 3D Cu Current Collectors for Stable and Binder-free Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries

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journal contribution
posted on 09.04.2018, 00:00 authored by Zailei Zhang, Zhong Lin Wang, Xianmao Lu
Silicon has proved to be a promising anode material of high-specific capacity for the next-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, during repeated discharge/charge cycles, Si-based electrodes, especially those in microscale size, pulverize and lose electrical contact with the current collectors due to large volume expansion. Here, we introduce a general method to synthesize Cu@M (M = Si, Al, C, SiO2, Si3N4, Ag, Ti, Ta, SnIn2O5, Au, V, Nb, W, Mg, Fe, Ni, Sn, ZnO, TiN, Al2O3, HfO2, and TiO2) core–shell nanowire arrays on Cu substrates. The resulting Cu@Si nanowire arrays were employed as LIB anodes that can be reused via HCl etching and H2-reduction. Multishelled Cu@Si@Cu microparticles supported on 3D Cu current collectors were further prepared as stable and binder-free LIB anodes. This 3D Cu@Si@Cu structure allows the interior conductive Cu network to effectively accommodate the volume expansion of the electrode and facilitates the contact between the Cu@Si@Cu particles and the current collectors during the repeated insertion/extraction of lithium ions. As a result, the 3D Cu@Si@Cu microparticles at a high Si-loading of 1.08 mg/cm2 showed a capacity retention of 81% after 200 cycles. In addition, charging tests of 3D Cu@Si@Cu-LiFePO4 full cells by a triboelectric nanogenerator with a pulsed current demonstrated that LIBs with silicon anodes can effectively store energy delivered by mechanical energy harvesters.