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Morphology Change and Improved Efficiency in Organic Photovoltaics via Hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene Templates

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journal contribution
posted on 11.06.2014, 00:00 by Henk H. Dam, Kuan Sun, Eric Hanssen, Jonathan M. White, Tomasz Marszalek, Wojciech Pisula, Jens Czolk, Jens Ludwig, Alexander Colsmann, Marina Pfaff, Dagmar Gerthsen, Wallace W. H. Wong, David J. Jones
The morphology of the active layer in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is of crucial importance as it greatly influences charge generation and transport. A templating interlayer between the electrode and the active layer can change active layer morphology and influence the domain orientation. A series of amphiphilic interface modifiers (IMs) combining a hydrophilic polyethylene-glycol (PEG) oligomer and a hydrophobic hexabenzocoronene (HBC) were designed to be soluble in PEDOT:PSS solutions, and surface accumulate on drying. These IMs are able to self-assemble in solution. When IMs are deposited on top of a poly­(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly­(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film, they induce a morphology change of the active layer consisting of discotic fluorenyl-substituted HBC (FHBC) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). However, when only small amounts (0.2 wt %) of IMs are blended into PEDOT:PSS, a profound change of the active layer morphology is also observed. Morphology changes were monitored by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM tomography, and low-energy high-angle angular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM). The interface modification resulted in a 20% enhancement of power conversion efficiency.