Molecular Structures of Isolevuglandin-Protein Cross-Links
journal contributionposted on 07.09.2016, 00:00 by Wenzhao Bi, Geeng-Fu Jang, Lei Zhang, John W. Crabb, James Laird, Mikhail Linetsky, Robert G. Salomon
Isolevuglandins (isoLGs) are stereo and structurally isomeric γ-ketoaldehydes produced through free radical-induced oxidation of arachidonates. Some isoLG isomers are also generated through enzymatic cyclooxygenation. Post-translational modification of proteins by isoLGs is associated with loss-of-function, cross-linking and aggregation. We now report that a low level of modification by one or two molecules of isoLG has a profound effect on the activity of a multi subunit protease, calpain-1. Modification of one or two key lysyl residues apparently suffices to abolish catalytic activity. Covalent modification of calpain-1 led to intersubunit cross-linking. Hetero- and homo-oligomers of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of calpain-1 were detected by SDS–PAGE with Western blotting. N-Acetyl-glycyl-lysine methyl ester and β-amyloid(11–17) peptide EVHHQKL were used as models for characterizing the cross-linking of protein lysyl residues resulting from adduction of isoLGE2. Aminal, bispyrrole, and trispyrrole cross-links of these two peptides were identified and fully characterized by mass spectrometry. Aminal and bispyrrole dimers were both detected. Furthermore, a complex mixture of derivatives of the bispyrrole cross-link containing one or more additional atoms of oxygen was found. Interesting differences are evident in the predominant cross-link type generated in the reaction of isoLGE2 with these peptides. More aminal cross-links versus bispyrrole are formed during the reaction of the dipeptide with isoLGE2. In contrast, more bispyrrole versus aminal cross-links are formed during the reaction of EVHHQKL with isoLGE2. It is tempting to speculate that the EVHHQKL peptide–pyrrole modification forms noncovalent aggregates that favor the production of covalent bispyrrole cross-links because β-amyloid(11–17) tends to spontaneously oligomerize.