American Chemical Society
mp1c00034_si_001.pdf (1.22 MB)

Molecular Insights into Warfarin Sodium 2‑Propanol Solvate Solid Form Changes and Disproportionation Using a Low Volume Two-Stage Dissolution Approach

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journal contribution
posted on 2021-03-09, 21:07 authored by Harsh S. Shah, Kaushalendra Chaturvedi, Rutesh H. Dave, Kenneth R. Morris
The current research work focuses on understanding the reported discrepancies and our observations in the dissolution profiles of warfarin sodium tablets and potential patient-based failure modes during oral warfarin therapy. It was hypothesized that freely soluble crystalline warfarin sodium (WARC) at first transforms into noncrystalline warfarin sodium (WARNC) under stress conditions. The WARC → WARNC conversion facilitates the rapid formation of the poorly soluble unionized form, which could lead to dissolution failures and potential poor in vivo performance. Depressed warfarin concentrations locally in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) may in turn lead to inadequate absorption and thereby affect bioavailability. A low volume two-stage dissolution method was developed to mimic in vivo GIT conditions. Warfarin sodium tablets exposed to room temperature and 75% relative humidity for 1 week showed approximately 23% decrease in drug release. The decline in drug release supports the hypothesis that WARNC is converted to the unionized form faster than WARC does under the same conditions. Solid state characterization (powder X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry) data demonstrated the disproportionation of warfarin sodium to unionized warfarin after solubility and dissolution studies. The findings support the hypothesis and a possible failure mode of warfarin sodium tablets. This work is a second case study from our laboratory on narrow therapeutic index drug products in which the instability of the solid state of the drug substance is potentially responsible for observed clinical failures.