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Molecular Control over Semiconductor Surface Electronic Properties:  Dicarboxylic Acids on CdTe, CdSe, GaAs, and InP

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journal contribution
posted on 30.10.1999, 00:00 by R. Cohen, L. Kronik, A. Shanzer, David Cahen, A. Liu, Y. Rosenwaks, J. K. Lorenz, A. B. Ellis
We present “design rules” for the selection of molecules to achieve electronic control over semiconductor surfaces, using a simple molecular orbital model. The performance of most electronic devices depends critically on their surface electronic properties, i.e., surface band-bending and surface recombination velocity. For semiconductors, these properties depend on the density and energy distribution of surface states. The model is based on a surface state-molecule, HOMO-LUMO-like interaction between molecule and semiconductor. We test it by using a combination of contact potential difference, surface photovoltage spectroscopy, and time- and intensity-resolved photoluminescence measurements. With these, we characterize the interaction of two types of bifunctional dicarboxylic acids, the frontier orbital energy levels of which can be changed systematically, with air-exposed CdTe, CdSe, InP, and GaAs surfaces. The molecules are chemisorbed as monolayers onto the semiconductors. This model explains the widely varying electronic consequences of such interaction and shows them to be determined by the surface state energy position and the strength of the molecule−surface state coupling. The present findings can thus be used as guidelines for molecule-aided surface engineering of semiconductors.