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Molecular Basis of the Antioxidant Capability of Glutathione Unraveled via Aerosol VUV Photoelectron Spectroscopy
journal contributionposted on 2016-09-02, 00:00 authored by Po-Chiao Chang, Youqing Yu, Zhong-Hang Wu, Ping-Cheng Lin, Wei-Ren Chen, Chien-Cheng Su, Meng-Sin Chen, Yu-Lin Li, Tzu-Ping Huang, Yin-Yu Lee, Chia C. Wang
Glutathione (GSH), the most abundant nonenzymatic antioxidant in living systems, actively scavenges various exogenous/endogenous oxidizing species, defending important biomolecules against oxidative damages. Although it is well established that the antioxidant activity of GSH originates from the cysteinyl thiol (−SH) group, the molecular origin that makes the thiol group of GSH a stronger reducing agent than other thiol-containing proteins is unclear. To gain insights into the molecular basis underlying GSH’s superior antioxidant capability, here we report, for the first time, the valence electronic structures of solvated GSH in the aqueous aerosol form via the aerosol vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy technique. The pH-dependent electronic evolution of GSH is obtained, and the possible correlations between GSH and its constituting amino acids are interrogated. The valence band maxima (VBMs) for GSH aqueous aerosols are found at 7.81, 7.61, 7.52, and 5.51 ± 0.10 eV at a pH of 1.00, 2.74, 7.00, and 12.00, respectively, which appear to be lower than the values of their corresponding hybrid counterparts collectively contributed from the three isolated constituting amino acids of GSH. An additional photoelectron feature is observed for GSH aqueous aerosols at pH = 12.00, where the thiol group on its Cys residue becomes deprotonated and the relatively well-separated feature allows its vertical ionization energy (VIE) to be determined as 6.70 ± 0.05 eV. Compared to a VIE of 6.97 ± 0.05 eV obtained for a similar thiolate feature observed previously for isolated Cys aqueous aerosols (Su et al. VUV Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cysteine Aqueous Aerosols: A Microscopic View of Its Nucleophilicity at Varying pH Conditions. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2015, 6, 817−823), a 0.27 eV reduction in the VIE is found for GSH, indicating that the outermost electron corresponding to the nonbonding electron on the thiolate group can be removed more readily from the GSH tripeptide than that from Cys alone. The possible origins underlying the decrease in the VBM of GSH with respect to that of each corresponding hybrid counterpart and the decrease in the VIE of the thiolate feature of GSH with respect to that of the isolated Cys are discussed, providing hints to understand the superior antioxidant capability of GSH from a molecular level.