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Mitochondrial Glutathione Transferase Zeta 1 Is Inactivated More Rapidly by Dichloroacetate than the Cytosolic Enzyme in Adult and Juvenile Rat Liver

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posted on 01.10.2019, 18:46 by Marci G. Smeltz, Zhiwei Hu, Guo Zhong, Stephan C. Jahn, Laura Rowland-Faux, Lloyd P. Horne, Peter W. Stacpoole, Margaret O. James
Dichloroacetate (DCA) has potential for treating mitochondrial disorders and cancer by activating the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Repeated dosing of DCA results in reduced drug clearance due to inactivation of glutathione transferase ζ1 (GSTZ1), its metabolizing enzyme. We investigated the time-course of inactivation of GSTZ1 in hepatic cytosol and mitochondria after one oral dose of 100 mg/kg DCA to female Sprague–Dawley rats aged 4 weeks (young) and 52 weeks (adult) as models for children and adults, respectively. GSTZ1 activity with both DCA and an endogenous substrate, maleylacetone (MA), as well as GSTZ1 protein expression were rapidly reduced in cytosol from both ages following DCA treatment. In mitochondria, loss of GSTZ1 protein and activity with DCA were even more rapid. The cytosolic in vivo half-lives of the loss of GSTZ1 activity with DCA were 1.05 ± 0.03 and 0.82 ± 0.02 h (mean ± S.D., n = 6) for young and adult rats, respectively, with inactivation significantly more rapid in adult rats, p < 0.001. The mitochondrial inactivation half-lives were similar in young (0.57 ± 0.02 h) and adult rats (0.54 ± 0.02 h) and were significantly (p < 0.0001) shorter than cytosolic inactivation half-lives. By 24 h after DCA administration, activity and expression remained at 10% or less than control values. The in vitro GSTZ1 inactivation half-lives following incubation with 2 mM DCA in the presence of physiological chloride (Cl) concentrations (cytosol = 44 mM, mitochondria = 1–2 mM) exhibited marked differences between subcellular fractions, being 3 times longer in the cytosol than in the mitochondria, regardless of age, suggesting that the lower Cl concentration in mitochondria explained the faster degradation of GSTZ1. These results demonstrate for the first time that rat mitochondrial GSTZ1 is more readily inactivated by DCA than cytosolic GSTZ1, and cytosolic GSTZ1 is inactivated more rapidly in adult than young rats.