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Mitochondria and Nuclei Dual-Targeted Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Cancer Chemophotodynamic Synergistic Therapy

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journal contribution
posted on 21.03.2019, 00:00 authored by Ruizhi Xie, Shu Lian, Huayi Peng, Changhe OuYang, Shuhui Li, Yusheng Lu, Xuning Cao, Chen Zhang, Jianhua Xu, Lee Jia
Dual-targeted nanoparticles are gaining increasing importance as a more effective anticancer strategy by attacking double key sites of tumor cells, especially in chemophotodynamic therapy. To retain the nuclei inhibition effect and enhance doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis by mitochondrial pathways simultaneously, we synthesized the novel nanocarrier (HKH) based on hollow carbon nitride nanosphere (HCNS) modified with hyaluronic acid (HA) and the mitochondrial localizing peptide D[KLAKLAK]2 (KLA). DOX-loaded HKH nanoparticles (HKHDs) showed satisfactory drug-loading efficiency, excellent solubility, and very low hemolytic effect. HA/CD44 binding and electrostatic attraction between positively charged KLA and A549 cells facilitated HKHD uptake via the endocytosis mechanism. Acidic microenvironment, hyaluronidase, and KLA targeting together facilitate doxorubicin toward the mitochondria and nuclei, resulting in apoptosis, DNA intercalation, cell-cycle arrest at the S phase, and light-induced reactive oxygen species production. Intravascular HKHD inhibited tumor growth in A549-implanted mice with good safety. The present study, for the first time, systemically reveals biostability, targetability, chemophotodynamics, and safety of the functionalized novel HKHD.