Metsulfuron-Methyl-Based Herbicidal Ionic Liquids
journal contributionposted on 08.04.2015, 00:00 by Juliusz Pernak, Michał Niemczak, Julia L. Shamshina, Gabriela Gurau, Grzegorz Głowacki, Tadeusz Praczyk, Katarzyna Marcinkowska, Robin D. Rogers
Ten sulfonylurea-based herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) were prepared by combining the metsulfuron-methyl anion with various cation types including quaternary ammonium ([bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyloleylammonium]+, [2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium]+), pyridinium ([1-dodecylpyridinium]+), piperidinium ([1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium]+), imidazolium ([1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium]+, [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium]+), pyrrolidinium ([1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium]+), morpholinium ([4-decyl-4-methylmorpholinium]+), and phosphonium ([trihexyltetradecylphosphonium]+ and [tetrabutylphosphonium]+). Their herbicidal efficacy was studied in both greenhouse tests and field trials. Preliminary results for the greenhouse tests showed at least twice the activity for all HILs when compared to the activity of commercial Galmet 20 SG, with HILs with phosphonium cations being the most effective. The results of two-year field studies showed significantly less enhancement of activity than observed in the greenhouse; nonetheless, it was found that the herbicidal efficacy was higher than that of the commercial analog, and efficacy varied depending on the plant species.