Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Decrystallization of Pseudo-Tophus in Synthetic Human Joint Models
journal contributionposted on 28.02.2019, 14:22 by Zainab Boone-Kukoyi, Kaliyah Moody, Chinenye Nwawulu, Rukayat Ariori, Hillary Ajifa, Janelle A. Guy, Carisse Lansiquot, Birol Ozturk, Gabrielle L. McLemore, Enock Bonyi, Kadir Aslan
In this paper, we tested a hypothesis that the metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated decrystallization (MAMAD) technique, based on the combined use of low-power medical microwave heating (MWH) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), can be used to decrystallize laboratory-prepared monosodium urate monohydrate crystal aggregate (pseudo-tophus) placed in three-dimensional (3D) synthetic human joint models. To simulate a potential treatment of chronic tophaceous gout using the MAMAD technique, we used three different 3D synthetic human joint models and assessed the percent mass reduction (PMR, i.e., decrystallization) of pseudo-tophus and microwave-induced synthetic skin patch damage after MAMAD sessions (a MAMAD session = 120 s of MWH in the presence of Au NPs). Our three synthetic joint models are: Model 1: Application of seven MAMAD sessions in a closed synthetic joint with a pseudo-bursa containing a pseudo-tophus submerged in a solution of 20 nm Au NPs followed by dehydration of pseudo-tophus after each MAMAD session to assess PMR. Model 2: Application of seven MAMAD sessions in a closed or open synthetic joint with a pseudo-bursa containing a pseudo-tophus submerged in a solution of Au NPs followed by intermittent dehydration of pseudo-tophus after seven MAMAD sessions to assess PMR. Model 3: Application of 18 MAMAD sessions in a rotated closed synthetic joint (three sides are heated separately) with a pseudo-bursa containing a pseudo-tophus submerged in a solution of Au NPs followed by dehydration after every three MAMAD sessions to assess PMR. After a single MAMAD session, pseudo-tophus exposed to MWH and Au NPs had an average PMR of 8.30% (up to an overall PMR of 15%), and microwave-induced damage to the synthetic skin can be controlled by the use of a sacrificial skin sample and by adjusting the duration and the number of the MAMAD sessions. Computational electromagnetic simulations predict a 10% absorption of electric field by the pseudo-tophus placed in the synthetic joint models, which led us to conclude that a medical microwave source with higher power than 20 W can potentially be used with the MAMAD technique.