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Metabolomics Analysis of Effects of Commercial Soy-based Protein Products in Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

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journal contribution
posted on 14.06.2017, 00:00 by Fabio Casu, Aaron M. Watson, Justin Yost, John W. Leffler, Thomas Gibson Gaylord, Frederic T. Barrows, Paul A. Sandifer, Michael R. Denson, Daniel W. Bearden
We investigated the metabolic effects of four different commercial soy-based protein products on red drum fish (Sciaenops ocellatus) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomics along with unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate metabolic profiles in liver, muscle, and plasma tissues. Specifically, during a 12 week feeding trial, juvenile red drum maintained in an indoor recirculating aquaculture system were fed four different commercially available soy formulations, containing the same amount of crude protein, and two reference diets as performance controls: a 60% soybean meal diet that had been used in a previous trial in our lab and a natural diet. Red drum liver, muscle, and plasma tissues were sampled at multiple time points to provide a more accurate snapshot of specific metabolic states during the grow-out. PCA score plots derived from NMR spectroscopy data sets showed significant differences between fish fed the natural diet and the soy-based diets, in both liver and muscle tissues. While red drum tolerated the inclusion of soy with good feed conversion ratios, a comparison to fish fed the natural diet revealed that the soy-fed fish in this study displayed a distinct metabolic signature characterized by increased protein and lipid catabolism, suggesting an energetic imbalance. Furthermore, among the soy-based formulations, one diet showed a more pronounced catabolic signature.