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Melted Paraffin Wax as an Innovative Liquid and Solid Extractant for Elemental Analysis by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

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journal contribution
posted on 03.02.2017, 00:00 by Rodrigo Papai, Roseli Hiromi Sato, Lidiane Cristina Nunes, Francisco José Krug, Ivanise Gaubeur
This work proposes a new development in the use of melted paraffin wax as a new extractant in a procedure designed to aggregate the advantages of liquid phase extraction (extract homogeneity, fast, and efficient transfer, low cost and simplicity) to solid phase extraction. As proof of concept, copper­(II) in aqueous samples was converted into a hydrophobic complex of copper­(II) diethyldithiocarbamate and subsequently extracted into paraffin wax. Parameters which affect the complexation and extraction (pH, DDTC, and Triton X-100 concentration, vortex agitation time and complexation time) were optimized in a univariate way. The combination of the extraction proposed procedure with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy allowed the precise copper determination (coefficient of variation = 3.1%, n = 10) and enhanced detectability because of the concentration factor of 18 times. A calibration curve was obtained with a linear range of 0.50–10.00 mg L–1 (R2 = 0.9990, n = 7), LOD = 0.12 mg L–1, and LOQ = 0.38 mg L–1 under optimized conditions. An extraction procedure efficiency of 94% was obtained. The accuracy of the method was confirmed through the analysis of a reference material of human blood serum, by the spike and recovery trials with seawater, tap water, mineral water, and alcoholic beverages and by comparing with those results obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.