Mechanisms of the Deactivation of SAPO-34 Materials with Different Crystal Sizes Applied as MTO Catalysts
journal contributionposted on 05.04.2013, 00:00 by Weili Dai, Guangjun Wu, Landong Li, Naijia Guan, Michael Hunger
SAPO-34 materials with comparable Brønsted acid site density but different crystal sizes were applied as methanol-to-olefin (MTO) catalysts to elucidate the effect of the crystal size on their deactivation behaviors. 13C HPDEC MAS NMR, FTIR, and UV/vis spectroscopy were employed to monitor the formation and nature of organic deposits, and the densities of accessible Brønsted acid sites and active hydrocarbon-pool species were studied as a function of time-on-stream (TOS) by 1H MAS NMR spectroscopy. The above-mentioned spectroscopic methods gave a very complex picture of the deactivation mechanism consisting of a number of different steps. The most important of these steps is the formation of alkyl aromatics with large alkyl chains improving at first the olefin selectivity, but hindering the reactant diffusion after longer TOS. The hindered reactant diffusion leads to a surplus of retarded olefinic reaction products in the SAPO-34 pores accompanied by their oligomerization and the formation of polycyclic aromatics. Finally, these polycyclic aromatics are responsible for a total blocking of the SAPO-34 pores, making all catalytically active sites inside the pores nonaccessible for further reactants.