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Mechanisms of Hydride Abstractions by Quinones

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journal contribution
posted on 01.10.2014, 00:00 authored by Xingwei Guo, Hendrik Zipse, Herbert Mayr
The kinetics of the hydride abstractions by 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ) from 13 C–H hydride donors (acyclic 1,4-dienes, cyclohexa-1,4-dienes, dihydropyridines), tributylstannane, triphenylstannane, and five borane complexes (amine–boranes, carbene–boranes) have been studied photometrically in dichloromethane solution at 20 °C. Analysis of the resulting second-order rate constants by the correlation log k2(20 °C) = sN(E + N) (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500) showed that the hydride abstractions from the C–H donors on one side and the Sn–H and B–H hydride donors on the other follow separate correlations, indicating different mechanisms for the two reaction series. The interpretation that the C–H donors transfer hydrogen to the carbonyl oxygen of DDQ while Sn–H and B–H hydride donors transfer hydride to a cyano-substituted carbon of DDQ is supported by quantum-chemical intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations and isotope labeling experiments of the reactions of D8-cyclohexa-1,4-diene, Bu3SnD, and pyridine·BD3 with 2,5-dichloro-p-benzoquinone. The second-order rate constants of the reactions of tributylstannane with different quinones correlate linearly with the electrophilicity parameters E of the quinones, which have previously been derived from the reactions of quinones with π-nucleophiles. The fact that the reactions of Bu3SnH with quinones and benzhydrylium ions are on the same log k2 vs E (electrophilicity) correlation shows that both reaction series proceed by the same mechanism and illustrates the general significance of the reactivity parameters E, N, and sN for predicting rates of polar organic reactions.