Martini Coarse-Grained Force Field: Extension to Carbohydrates
journal contributionposted on 08.12.2009, 00:00 by Cesar A. López, Andrzej J. Rzepiela, Alex H. de Vries, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Philippe H. Hünenberger, Siewert J. Marrink
We present an extension of the Martini coarse-grained force field to carbohydrates. The parametrization follows the same philosophy as was used previously for lipids and proteins, focusing on the reproduction of partitioning free energies of small compounds between polar and nonpolar phases. The carbohydrate building blocks considered are the monosaccharides glucose and fructose and the disaccharides sucrose, trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, nigerose, laminarabiose, kojibiose, and sophorose. Bonded parameters for these saccharides are optimized by comparison to conformations sampled with an atomistic force field, in particular with respect to the representation of the most populated rotameric state for the glycosidic bond. Application of the new coarse-grained carbohydrate model to the oligosaccharides amylose and Curdlan shows a preservation of the main structural properties with 3 orders of magnitude more efficient sampling than the atomistic counterpart. Finally, we investigate the cryo- and anhydro-protective effect of glucose and trehalose on a lipid bilayer and find a strong decrease of the melting temperature, in good agreement with both experimental findings and atomistic simulation studies.