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Mapping 1D Confined Electromagnetic Edge States in 2D Monolayer Semiconducting MoS2 Using 4D-STEM

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-03-28, 22:30 authored by Yi Wen, Shiang Fang, Matthew Coupin, Yang Lu, Colin Ophus, Efthimios Kaxiras, Jamie H. Warner
Four-dimensional (4D) scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to study the electric fields at the edges of 2D semiconducting monolayer MoS2. Sub-nanometer 1D features in the 2D electric field maps are observed at the outermost region along zigzag edges and also along nanowire MoS-terminated MoS2 edges. Atomic-scale oscillations are detected in the magnitude of the 1D electromagnetic edge state, with spatial variations that depend on the specific periodic edge reconstructions. Electric field reconstructions, along with integrated differential phase contrast reconstructions, reveal the presence of low Z number atoms terminating many of the uniform edges, which are difficult to detect by annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy due to its limited dynamic range. Density functional theory calculations support the formation of periodic 1D edge states and also show that enhancement of the electric field magnitude can occur for some edge terminations. The experimentally observed electric fields at the edges are attributed to the absence of an opposing electric field from a nearest neighbor atom when the electron beam propagates through the 2D monolayer and interacts. These results show the potential of 4D-STEM to map the atomic scale structure and fluctuations of electric fields around edge atoms with different bonding states than bulk atoms in 2D materials, beyond conventional imaging.