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Magnetic Hyperthermia Experiments with Magnetic Nanoparticles in Clarified Butter Oil and Paraffin: A Thermodynamic Analysis

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journal contribution
posted on 02.12.2020, 18:44 by Adriele A. de Almeida, Emilio De Biasi, Marcelo Vasquez Mansilla, Daniela P. Valdés, Horacio E. Troiani, Guillermina Urretavizcaya, Teobaldo E. Torres, Luis M. Rodríguez, Daniel E. Fregenal, Guillermo C. Bernardi, Elin L. Winkler, Gerardo F. Goya, Roberto D. Zysler, Enio Lima
In specific power absorption models for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) experiments, the magnetic relaxation time of nanoparticles (NPs) is known to be a fundamental descriptor of the heating mechanisms. The relaxation time is mainly determined by the interplay between the magnetic properties of NPs and the rheological properties of NPs’ environment. Although the role of magnetism in MFH has been extensively studied, the thermal properties of the NP medium and their changes during MFH experiments have been underrated so far. Herein, we show that ZnxFe3–xO4 NPs dispersed through different media with phase transition in the temperature range of experiment as clarified butter oil (CBO) and paraffin. These systems show nonlinear behavior of the heating rate within the temperature range of MFH experiments. For CBO, a fast increase at ∼306 K is associated with changes in the viscosity (η­(T)) and specific heat (cp(T)) of the medium at its melting temperature. This increment in the heating rate takes place around 318 K for paraffin. The magnetic and morphological characterization of NPs together with the observed agglomeration of NPs above 306 and 318 K for CBO and paraffin, respectively, indicate that the fast increase in MFH curves could not be associated with the change in the magnetic relaxation mechanism, with Néel relaxation being dominant. In fact, successive experimental runs performed up to temperatures below and above the CBO and paraffin melting points resulted in different MFH curves due to agglomeration of NPs driven by magnetic field inhomogeneity during the experiments. Our results highlight the relevance of the thermodynamic properties of the system NP-medium for an accurate measurement of the heating efficiency for in vitro and in vivo environments, where the thermal properties are largely variable within the temperature window of MFH experiments.