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Machine Learning Enabled Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Noninvasive Assessment of Breast Tumor Progression In Vivo: A Preclinical Study
journal contributionposted on 2024-01-30, 13:06 authored by Jackson Rodrigues, Ashwini Amin, Subhash Chandra, Nitufa J. Mulla, G. Subramanya Nayak, Sharada Rai, Satadru Ray, Krishna Kishore Mahato
Breast cancer is a dreaded disease affecting women the most in cancer-related deaths over other cancers. However, early diagnosis of the disease can help increase survival rates. The existing breast cancer diagnosis tools do not support the early diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, there is a great need to develop early diagnostic tools for this cancer. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), being very sensitive to biochemical changes, can be relied upon for its application in detecting breast tumors in vivo. With this motivation, in the current study, an aseptic chamber integrated photoacoustic (PA) probe was designed and developed to monitor breast tumor progression in vivo, established in nude mice. The device served the dual purpose of transporting tumor-bearing animals to the laboratory from the animal house and performing PA experiments in the same chamber, maintaining sterility. In the current study, breast tumor was induced in the nude mice by MCF-7 cells injection and the corresponding PA spectra at different time points (day 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20) of tumor progression in vivo in the same animals. The recorded photoacoustic spectra were subsequently preprocessed, wavelet-transformed, and subjected to filter-based feature selection algorithm. The selected top 20 features, by minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) algorithm, were then used to build an input feature matrix for machine learning (ML)-based classification of the data. The performance of classification models demonstrated 100% specificity, whereas the sensitivity of 95, 100, 92.5, and 85% for the time points, day 5, 10, 15, and 20, respectively. These results suggest the potential of PA signal-based classification of breast tumor progression in a preclinical model. The PA signal contains information on the biochemical changes associated with disease progression, emphasizing its translational strength toward early disease diagnosis.
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