Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition of Copper Films Using Borane Dimethylamine as the Reducing Co-reagent
journal contributionposted on 24.06.2014, 00:00 by Lakmal C. Kalutarage, Scott B. Clendenning, Charles H. Winter
The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Cu metal films was carried out by a two-step process with Cu(OCHMeCH2NMe2)2 and BH3(NHMe2) on Ru substrates and by a three-step process employing Cu(OCHMeCH2NMe2)2, formic acid, and BH3(NHMe2) on Pd and Pt substrates. The two-step process demonstrated self-limited ALD growth at 150 °C with Cu(OCHMeCH2NMe2)2 and BH3(NHMe2) pulse lengths of ≥3.0 and ≥1.0 s, respectively. An ALD window was observed between 130 and 160 °C, with a growth rate of about 0.13 Å/cycle. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed rough Cu films that likely originate from the Cu nanoparticle seed layer. The Cu films exhibited poor electrical conductivity because of their nanoparticulate natures. The three-step process showed self-limited ALD growth on Pd and Pt at 150 °C with Cu(OCHMeCH2NMe2)2, formic acid, and BH3(NHMe2) pulse lengths of ≥3.0, ≥ 0.3, and ≥1.0 s, respectively. ALD windows were observed between 135 and 165 °C on both Pd and Pt, with growth rates of 0.20 Å/cycle on both substrates. Plots of film thickness versus number of cycles showed linear growth behavior on Pd with a growth rate of 0.20 Å/cycle up to 2000 cycles. By contrast, a similar plot for growth on Pt revealed nonlinear growth behavior, with a growth rate of about 0.4 Å/cycle up to 500 cycles, and then a growth rate of about 0.03 Å/cycle between 500 and 2000 cycles. The large difference in growth behavior between Pd and Pt substrates is proposed to occur by formation of a Cu/Pd alloy film and continuous catalytic decomposition of the BH3(NHMe2) by the surface Pd sites. By contrast, there is much less surface Pt in the growing Cu film, and catalytic decomposition of BH3(NHMe2) by the diminishing surface Pt as the Cu film grows leads to a decreased growth rate beyond 500 cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals the formation of high purity Cu metal for all depositions, with low levels of C, N, O, and B. The Cu films on Pd and Pt showed smooth, continuous films at all thicknesses and had low electrical resistivities.