American Chemical Society
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Low-Potential Amperometric Enzyme Biosensor for Xanthine and Hypoxanthine

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journal contribution
posted on 2012-12-04, 00:00 authored by Palraj Kalimuthu, Silke Leimkühler, Paul V. Bernhardt
The bacterial xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) from Rhodobacter capsulatus was immobilized on an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite (EPG) electrode to construct a hypoxanthine/xanthine biosensor that functions at physiological pH. Phenazine methosulfate (PMS) was used as a mediator which acts as an artificial electron-transfer partner for XDH. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and also xanthine to uric acid by an oxidative hydroxylation mechanism. The present electrochemical biosensor was optimized in terms of applied potential and pH. The electrocatalytic oxidation response showed a linear dependence on the xanthine concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10–5 to 1.8 × 10–3 M with a correlation coefficient of 0.994. The modified electrode shows a very low detection limit for xanthine of 0.25 nM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) using controlled potential amperometry.