Low-Temperature Torrefaction of Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens: Effect of Two Torrefaction Procedures on the Composition of Bio-Oil Obtained
journal contributionposted on 24.04.2017, 00:00 by Xiaoyan Lv, Zhicheng Jiang, Jindong Li, Yue Wang, Dongmei Tong, Changwei Hu
Low-temperature torrefaction of pubescens was studied by one-step (RT–200 °C) and two-step (RT–120 °C first, and then 120–200 °C) ways. For one-step torrefaction, the cracking of intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in cellulose promoted the formation of oligosaccharide, anhydrosugar, and levoglucosan intermediates with monosaccharide, carboxylic acid, furans, etc. The oligomers with 4-O-5, β-O-4 linkages were mainly derived from the cleavage of C–O–C bonds between lignin and cellulose, and p-hydoxyphenyl (H), ferulate (F) intermediates were derived from the cracking of β-O-4 and Cα–Cβ in lignin. In two-step torrefaction, the first step (RT–120 °C) tended to generate the intermediates of oligosaccharide, levoglucosan and pyranose, which mainly derived from the cleavage of intermolecular hydrogen bonds or ether bonds in amorphous cellulose. The lignin-based oligomers with 4-O-5 and β-O-4 linkages were mainly derived from the cracking of β-O-4 and dehydration. For the second step (120–200 °C), the cracking of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in amorphous cellulose promoted the formation of oligosaccharide and anhydrosugar intermediates. While the oligomers with β-5, 4-O-5, and β-O-4 linkages were derived from the cracking of Cα–Cβ bonds and dehydration process, the cleavage of C–O–C bonds promoted the formation of ferulate (F) intermediates.
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β- O -4carboxylic acidRTβ- O -4 linkagesoligosaccharideLow-Temperature Torrefactionanhydrosugar intermediatesPhyllostachys heterocycla cvBio-Oil Obtained Low-temperature torrefactioncelluloselevoglucosan intermediatesTorrefaction Proceduresformationlignin-based oligomers4- Oether bondshydrogen bondsdehydration processcleavageintramolecular hydrogen bonds