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Lipoprotein-Based Nanoparticles Rescue the Memory Loss of Mice with Alzheimer’s Disease by Accelerating the Clearance of Amyloid-Beta

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posted on 2014-03-25, 00:00 authored by Qingxiang Song, Meng Huang, Lei Yao, Xiaolin Wang, Xiao Gu, Juan Chen, Jun Chen, Jialin Huang, Quanyin Hu, Ting Kang, Zhengxing Rong, Hong Qi, Gang Zheng, Hongzhuan Chen, Xiaoling Gao
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation in the brain is believed to play a central role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis, and the common late-onset form of AD is characterized by an overall impairment in Aβ clearance. Therefore, development of nanomedicine that can facilitate Aβ clearance represents a promising strategy for AD intervention. However, previous work of this kind was concentrated at the molecular level, and the disease-modifying effectiveness of such nanomedicine has not been investigated in clinically relevant biological systems. Here, we hypothesized that a biologically inspired nanostructure, apolipoprotein E3–reconstituted high density lipoprotein (ApoE3–rHDL), which presents high binding affinity to Aβ, might serve as a novel nanomedicine for disease modification in AD by accelerating Aβ clearance. Surface plasmon resonance, transmission electron microscopy, and co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that ApoE3–rHDL demonstrated high binding affinity to both Aβ monomer and oligomer. It also accelerated the microglial, astroglial, and liver cell degradation of Aβ by facilitating the lysosomal transport. One hour after intravenous administration, about 0.4% ID/g of ApoE3–rHDL gained access to the brain. Four-week daily treatment with ApoE3–rHDL decreased Aβ deposition, attenuated microgliosis, ameliorated neurologic changes, and rescued memory deficits in an AD animal model. The findings here provided the direct evidence of a biomimetic nanostructure crossing the blood–brain barrier, capturing Aβ and facilitating its degradation by glial cells, indicating that ApoE3–rHDL might serve as a novel nanomedicine for disease modification in AD by accelerating Aβ clearance, which also justified the concept that nanostructures with Aβ-binding affinity might provide a novel nanoplatform for AD therapy.