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Light-Induced Liposomal Drug Delivery with an Amphiphilic Porphyrin and Its Chlorin and Bacteriochlorin Analogues

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posted on 2024-01-08, 15:08 authored by Paula Enzian, Nina Kleineberg, Elisabeth Kirchert, Christian Schell, Ramtin Rahmanzadeh
The development of targeted drug delivery mechanisms in the human body is a matter of growing interest in medical science. The selective release of therapeutic agents at a specific target site can increase the therapeutical efficiency and at the same time reduce the side effects. Light-sensitive liposomes can release a drug by an externally controlled light trigger. Liposomes containing photosensitizers that can be activated in the longer wavelength range (650–800 nm) are particularly intriguing for medical purposes. This is because light penetration into a tissue is more efficient within this wavelength range, increasing their potential applications. For this study, liposomes with an encapsulated amphiphilic photosensitizer, the porphyrin 5,10-DiOH (5,10-di­(4-hydroxyphenyl)-15,20-diphenyl-21,23H-porphyrin), its chlorin (5,10-DiOH-chlorin) and its bacteriochlorin (5,10-DiOH-bacteriochlorin) were synthesized. The porphyrin 5,10-DiOH showed previously effective cargo release after liposomal encapsulation when irradiated at a wavelength of 420 nm. The new synthesized chlorin and bacteriochlorin photosensitizers show additional absorption bands in the longer wavelength range, which would enable excitation in deeper layers of tissue. Effective cargo release with chlorin at a longer wavelength of 650 nm and bacteriochlorin at 740 nm was possible. Irradiation of chlorin allowed more than 75% of the cargo to be released and more than 60% for bacteriochlorin. The new liposomes would enable selective drug release in deeper tissue layers and expand the range of possible applications.

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